Machine Learning From Scratch


by eriklindernoren

Python implementations of some of the fundamental Machine Learning models and algorithms from scratch.

The purpose of this project is not to produce as optimized and computationally efficient algorithms as possible but rather to present the inner workings of them in a transparent and accessible way.

Table of Contents

Installation

$ git clone https://github.com/eriklindernoren/ML-From-Scratch
$ cd ML-From-Scratch
$ python setup.py install

Examples

Polynomial Regression

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/polynomial_regression.py

Figure: Training progress of a regularized polynomial regression model fitting
temperature data measured in Linköping, Sweden 2016.

Classification With CNN

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/convolutional_neural_network.py

+---------+
| ConvNet |
+---------+
Input Shape: (1, 8, 8)
+----------------------+------------+--------------+
| Layer Type           | Parameters | Output Shape |
+----------------------+------------+--------------+
| Conv2D               | 160        | (16, 8, 8)   |
| Activation (ReLU)    | 0          | (16, 8, 8)   |
| Dropout              | 0          | (16, 8, 8)   |
| BatchNormalization   | 2048       | (16, 8, 8)   |
| Conv2D               | 4640       | (32, 8, 8)   |
| Activation (ReLU)    | 0          | (32, 8, 8)   |
| Dropout              | 0          | (32, 8, 8)   |
| BatchNormalization   | 4096       | (32, 8, 8)   |
| Flatten              | 0          | (2048,)      |
| Dense                | 524544     | (256,)       |
| Activation (ReLU)    | 0          | (256,)       |
| Dropout              | 0          | (256,)       |
| BatchNormalization   | 512        | (256,)       |
| Dense                | 2570       | (10,)        |
| Activation (Softmax) | 0          | (10,)        |
+----------------------+------------+--------------+
Total Parameters: 538570

Training: 100% [------------------------------------------------------------------------] Time: 0:01:55
Accuracy: 0.987465181058

Figure: Classification of the digit dataset using CNN.

Density-Based Clustering

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/dbscan.py

Figure: Clustering of the moons dataset using DBSCAN.

Generating Handwritten Digits

$ python mlfromscratch/unsupervised_learning/generative_adversarial_network.py

+-----------+
| Generator |
+-----------+
Input Shape: (100,)
+------------------------+------------+--------------+
| Layer Type             | Parameters | Output Shape |
+------------------------+------------+--------------+
| Dense                  | 25856      | (256,)       |
| Activation (LeakyReLU) | 0          | (256,)       |
| BatchNormalization     | 512        | (256,)       |
| Dense                  | 131584     | (512,)       |
| Activation (LeakyReLU) | 0          | (512,)       |
| BatchNormalization     | 1024       | (512,)       |
| Dense                  | 525312     | (1024,)      |
| Activation (LeakyReLU) | 0          | (1024,)      |
| BatchNormalization     | 2048       | (1024,)      |
| Dense                  | 803600     | (784,)       |
| Activation (TanH)      | 0          | (784,)       |
+------------------------+------------+--------------+
Total Parameters: 1489936

+---------------+
| Discriminator |
+---------------+
Input Shape: (784,)
+------------------------+------------+--------------+
| Layer Type             | Parameters | Output Shape |
+------------------------+------------+--------------+
| Dense                  | 401920     | (512,)       |
| Activation (LeakyReLU) | 0          | (512,)       |
| Dropout                | 0          | (512,)       |
| Dense                  | 131328     | (256,)       |
| Activation (LeakyReLU) | 0          | (256,)       |
| Dropout                | 0          | (256,)       |
| Dense                  | 514        | (2,)         |
| Activation (Softmax)   | 0          | (2,)         |
+------------------------+------------+--------------+
Total Parameters: 533762

Figure: Training progress of a Generative Adversarial Network generating
handwritten digits.

Deep Reinforcement Learning

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/deep_q_network.py

+----------------+
| Deep Q-Network |
+----------------+
Input Shape: (4,)
+-------------------+------------+--------------+
| Layer Type        | Parameters | Output Shape |
+-------------------+------------+--------------+
| Dense             | 320        | (64,)        |
| Activation (ReLU) | 0          | (64,)        |
| Dense             | 130        | (2,)         |
+-------------------+------------+--------------+
Total Parameters: 450

Figure: Deep Q-Network solution to the CartPole-v1 environment in OpenAI gym.

Image Reconstruction With RBM

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/restricted_boltzmann_machine.py

Figure: Shows how the network gets better during training at reconstructing
the digit 2 in the MNIST dataset.

Evolutionary Evolved Neural Network

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/neuroevolution.py

+---------------+
| Model Summary |
+---------------+
Input Shape: (64,)
+----------------------+------------+--------------+
| Layer Type           | Parameters | Output Shape |
+----------------------+------------+--------------+
| Dense                | 1040       | (16,)        |
| Activation (ReLU)    | 0          | (16,)        |
| Dense                | 170        | (10,)        |
| Activation (Softmax) | 0          | (10,)        |
+----------------------+------------+--------------+
Total Parameters: 1210

Population Size: 100
Generations: 3000
Mutation Rate: 0.01

[0 Best Individual - Fitness: 3.08301, Accuracy: 10.5%]
[1 Best Individual - Fitness: 3.08746, Accuracy: 12.0%]
...
[2999 Best Individual - Fitness: 94.08513, Accuracy: 98.5%]
Test set accuracy: 96.7%

Figure: Classification of the digit dataset by a neural network which has
been evolutionary evolved.

Genetic Algorithm

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/genetic_algorithm.py

+--------+
|   GA   |
+--------+
Description: Implementation of a Genetic Algorithm which aims to produce
the user specified target string. This implementation calculates each
candidate's fitness based on the alphabetical distance between the candidate
and the target. A candidate is selected as a parent with probabilities proportional
to the candidate's fitness. Reproduction is implemented as a single-point
crossover between pairs of parents. Mutation is done by randomly assigning
new characters with uniform probability.

Parameters
----------
Target String: 'Genetic Algorithm'
Population Size: 100
Mutation Rate: 0.05

[0 Closest Candidate: 'CJqlJguPlqzvpoJmb', Fitness: 0.00]
[1 Closest Candidate: 'MCxZxdr nlfiwwGEk', Fitness: 0.01]
[2 Closest Candidate: 'MCxZxdm nlfiwwGcx', Fitness: 0.01]
[3 Closest Candidate: 'SmdsAklMHn kBIwKn', Fitness: 0.01]
[4 Closest Candidate: '  lotneaJOasWfu Z', Fitness: 0.01]
...
[292 Closest Candidate: 'GeneticaAlgorithm', Fitness: 1.00]
[293 Closest Candidate: 'GeneticaAlgorithm', Fitness: 1.00]
[294 Answer: 'Genetic Algorithm']

Association Analysis

$ python mlfromscratch/examples/apriori.py
+-------------+
|   Apriori   |
+-------------+
Minimum Support: 0.25
Minimum Confidence: 0.8
Transactions:
    [1, 2, 3, 4]
    [1, 2, 4]
    [1, 2]
    [2, 3, 4]
    [2, 3]
    [3, 4]
    [2, 4]
Frequent Itemsets:
    [1, 2, 3, 4, [1, 2], [1, 4], [2, 3], [2, 4], [3, 4], [1, 2, 4], [2, 3, 4]]
Rules:
    1 -> 2 (support: 0.43, confidence: 1.0)
    4 -> 2 (support: 0.57, confidence: 0.8)
    [1, 4] -> 2 (support: 0.29, confidence: 1.0)

Implementations

Supervised Learning

Unsupervised Learning

Reinforcement Learning

Deep Learning

Post HERE

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